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Humus Manual January 2018

The humus manual has been transformed in journal articles.
The content of the chapters has been reduced and adapted to
a journal diffusion.
Why?
Costs are more advantageous (less high for consumers);
the diffusion of articles is easier than the one of books;
potential readers are more numerous for articles;
it is easy to print an article and to take it in the field;
electronic difusion is very fast;
a field manual may become obsolete in few years;
electronic versions are very cheap and may content a lot of figures;
an eventual update passes through new articles, which are easier to write
than a whole book.

The articles were collected in three Special issues of APPLIED SOIL ECOLOGY journal.
Humusica 1, aticles: 1-8 = Terresrial natural humus systems
Humusica 2, articles: 9-11 = Histic (moors); 12 = Aqueous (sea-sides) 13 = Para (atypical systems)
14-15-16: Agro and Techno systems; 17-18-19 = agriculture and global chnage
Humusica 3: 74 articles of in deepth material concerning soil functioning, soil classification, soil management,
agriculture, new tools of research, new theories and methodologies of soil investigation.
All articles will be free available during three monts . Planned publication: Decembre 2017 and Jannuary 2018.



PART ONE: ESSENTIAL BASES
Basic language, ecological considerations, how to use this manual
1. BASIC VOCABULARY
1.1. Why do we classify things?
1.2. What's soil?
1.3. What's humus?
1.4. The pedon, a "sample of soil".
1.5. Why parting the pedon in three ?
1.6. Soil and humus profiles and horizons
1.7. In short: real objects and concepts
1.8. Historical overview
1.9. General overview of Humus systems and forms of our planet

2. FUNCTIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
2.1. A functional classification
2.2. What's a humus system ?
2.3. Energetic considerations
2.4. A question of climatic and nutritional conditions
2.5. The concept of Interaction System

3. QUICK LOOK AT THE CLASSIFICATION
3.1. Quick look at the classification
3.2. Step by step classification
PART TWO: TERRESTRIAL HUMUS SYSTEMS AND FORMS
Humipedon classification: tools and actions for field investigations

4. SPECIFIC TERMS AND DIAGNOSTIC HORIZONS
4.1. Specific terms
4.2. Definition of diagnostic horizons
4.2.1. Organic horizons (O horizons)
4.2.2. Organo-mineral horizons (A horizons)
4.2.3. A horizon and ratio of humic/mineral components
4.3. Biological features of A biostructured horizons
4.4. Horizons mixed by wild mammals


5. KEY of CLASSIFICATION of HUMUS SYSTEMS and FORMS
5.1. Key of classification of HUMUS SYSTEMS
5.2. General character and distribution of the humus systems
5.3. Key of classification of HUMUS FORMS
5.3.1. Mull, 4 humus forms (Eu, Meso, Oligo, Dys)
5.3.2. Moder, 3 humus forms (Hemi, Eu, Dys)
5.3.3. Amphi, 4 humus forms (Pachy, Eumacro, Eumeso, Lepto)
5.3.4. Tangel, 3 humus forms (Lepto, Eu, Pachy)
5.3.5. Mor, 3 humus forms (Hemi, Humi, Eu)
5.4. Tangel status and comparison with thickness of Amphi diagnostic horizons


6. HYDRO INTERGRADES
6.1. Specific terms and diagnostic horizons
6.2. Names of Hydro intergrades
6.3. Simplified table of classification of Terrestrial humus systems, forms and Hydro intergrades


7. FIELD PRACTICE
7.1. What are humus forms?
7.2. Where and how to find humus forms?
7.3. How carefully observing humus forms?
7.4. Why and how humus forms build-up?
7.5. Where and when humus forms are changing?


8. BIOACTIVITY, PEDOFAUNA AND DROPPINGS, SCALES AND DYNAMICS
8.1. Bioactivity and Humus systems
8.2. Pedofauna and droppings photo gallery
8.3. Humus forms functioning and forest mosaic
8.4. Biomass/litter production and climate change
8.5. Humus forms and bacteria

PART SEVEN: SPECIAL REPORTS or IN-DEPTH SPECIFIC STUDIES
Scientific advances about humus and soil practical procedures for a sustainable exploitation of the soil

Humus systems and:
- EDUCATION
- MICROORGANISMS, FUNGI, PEDOFAUNA, FAUNA, VEGETATION
- ENVIRONMENT
- ORGANIC MATTER: CHEMICAL and PHYSICAL characterization, HORMONE-LIKE activity, CYCLES of mineral elements
- MICROMORPHOLOGY
- CLASSIFICATION
- PRACTICAL STUDIES and APPLICATIONS in Agricultutral contexts, Land use changes, Organic and traditional food production, others

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Humusica 1

article 1: Essential bases – Vocabulary

article 2: Essential bases-Functional considerations

article 3: Essential bases – Quick look at the classification

article 4: Terrestrial humus systems and forms - Specific terms and diagnostic horizons

article 5: Terrestrial humus systems and forms - Keys of classification of humus systems and forms

article 6: Terrestrial humus systems and forms – Hydro intergrades

article 7: Terrestrial humus systems and forms – Field practice and sampling problems

article 8: Terrestrial humus systems and forms – Biological activity and soil aggregates, space-time dynamics

Humusica 2

article 9: Histic humus systems and forms-Specific terms, diagnostic horizons and overview

article 10: Histic humus systems and forms – Key of classification

article 11: Histic humus systems and forms–Epihisto intergrades and dynamics

article 12: Aqueous humipedons – Tidal and subtidal humus systems and forms

article 13: Para humus systems and forms

article 14: Anthropogenic soils and humus systems, comparing classification systems

article 15: Agro humus systems and forms

article 16: Techno humus systems and recycling of waste

article 17: techno humus systems and global change − three crucial questions

article 18: Techno humus systems and global change – Greenhouse effect, soil and agriculture

article 19: Techno humus systems and global change–conservation agriculture and 4/1000 proposal



HUMUSICA 3

1. Balestrini R. and Lumini E. Focus on mycorrhizal symbioses

2. Bernier N. Hotspots of biodiversity in the underground: A matter of humus form?

3. Cakir M. and Makineci E. Community Structure and seasonal variations of soil microarthropods during environmental changes

4. Centenaro G., Hudek C., Zanella A., Crivellaro A. Root-soil physical and biotic interactions with a focus on tree root systems: a review

5. Geisen S. and Bonkowski M. Methodological advances to study the diversity of soil protists and their functioning in soil food webs

6. Hardersen S. and Zapponi L. Wood degradation and the role of saproxylic insects for lignoforms

7. Mathieu J., Caro G., Dupont L. Methods for studying earthworm dispersal

8. Salmon S. Relationships between humus forms, soil invertebrate communities and mineralization processes. Changes in humus forms, soil invertebrate communities and soil functioning with forest dynamics

9. Schimmer C. and van Deventer P.W. Baseline status of microbial activity of gold tailings facilities in South Africa.

10. Yin X., Ma C., He H., Wang Z., Li X., Fu G., Liu J., Zheng, Y. Distribution and diversity patterns of soil fauna in different salini- zation habitats of Songnen Grasslands, China

11. Andreetta A., Cecchini G., Carnicelli S. Forest humus forms in Italy: A research approach

12. Aubert M. and Bureau F. Forest humus forms as a playground for studying aboveground-belowground relationships: Part 1, Theoretical backgrounds

13. Aubert M., Trap J., Chauvat M., Hedde M., Bureau F. Forest humus forms as a playground for studying aboveground-belowground relationships. Part 2 : a case study along the dynamics of a broadleaved plain forest ecosystem

14. Blouin M. Chemical communication: an evidence for co-evolution between plants and soil organisms

15. Burrow C. Influence of connectivity & topsoil management practices of a constructed technosol on pedofauna colonization: A field study.

16. Chertov O. and Nadporozhskaya M. Development and application of Humus form concept for soil classification, mapping and dynamic modelling in Russia

17. Delaporte A., Zanella A., Vincent G., Bugeat M., Damesin C., Bazot S. Structural and functional differences in the belowground compartment of healthy and declining beech trees

18. Freppaz M., Pintaldi E., Magnani A., Viglietti D., Williams M.W. Topsoil and Snow: a continuum system

19. Habashi H., and Waez-Mousavi S.M. Single-tree selection system effects on forest soil macrofauna biodiversity in mixed oriental beech stands

20. Kõlli R. Dynamics of annual falling debris decomposition and forest floor accumulation

21. Kõlli R., Köster T. Interrelationships of humus cover (pro humus forms) with soil cover and plant cover: Humus https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.apsoil.2017.07.029 form as transitional space between soil and plant


22. Korkina I.N. and Vorobeichik E.L. Humus index as an indicator of the topsoil response to the impacts of industrial pollution


23. Lata J.-C., Dusza Y., Abbadie L., Barot S., Carmignac D., Gendreau E., Kraepiel Y., Mériguet J., Motard E., Raynaud X. Role of substrate properties in the provision of multifunctional green roof ecosystem services


24. Paoletti M.G., Furlan C. Nutrient contents assessment in a cloud forest terrestrial isopod (Ischioscia variegata), using a non-de- structive method, X-Ray Fluorescence. Higher P and Ca in the Isopods collected in the canopy.


25. Pintaldi E., D'Amico M.E., Stanchi S., Catoni M., Freppaz M., Bonifacio E. Humus forms affect soil susceptibility to erosion in the Western Italian Alps


26. Wang X. Varying pyrolysis temperature impacts application effects of biochar on soil labile organic carbon and humic fractions
3. Humus systems and chemical/physical properties


27. Berg B. Decomposing litter; Limit values; Humus accumulation, locally and regionally


28. Characteristics of soil organic matter of edifisols – An example of techno humus system Markiewicz M., Hulisz P., Charzyński P., Piernik A. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2017.04.022


29. Drosos M., Nebbioso A., Piccolo A. Humeomics: A key to unravel the humusic pentagram


30. Nardi S., Pizzeghello D., Ertani A. Hormone-like activity of the soil organic matter


31. Garcia-Mina J.M. Hypothetical framework integrating the main mechanisms involved in the promoting action of rhizospheric humic substances on plant root- and shoot-growth


32. Kõlli R. and Tamm I. Nitrogen and ash elements content in sub- horizons of forest floor


33. Kwiatkowska-Malina J. Functions of organic matter in polluted soils: the effect of organic amendments on phytoavailability of heavy metals


34. Santoiemma G. Recent methodologies for studying the soil organic matter


35. Vittori Antisari L., Carbone S., Bosi S., Gatti A., Dinelli G. Engineered nanoparticles effects in soil-plant system: basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) study case


36. Zanella A. Humans, humus and universe


37. Bonifacio E., D'Amico M., Catoni M., Stanchi S. Humus forms in the
Ligurian Alps (North-Western Italy)


38. Brun J.J. Humus forms pathways in low-elevation cold scree slopes:
Tangel or Mor?


39. Chersich S.L. Humogenesis and pedogenesis: humus forms and soils
under a spruce forest


40. Cocco S., Cardelli V., Bigaran F., Massaccesi L., Agnelli A.,
Weindorf D.C., Ping C.-L., Michaelson G.J., Corti G. Latitudinal transect relationship between soil organic horizons and permafrost depth in Alaska


41. Costantini E.A.C. Paleosols and pedostratigraphy


42. De Nicola Pilar M.C., Testi A., Zanella A., Pignatti S. Factors in-
fluence on humus forming in Castelporziano Reserve,
Mediterranean forest ecosystem


43. Badia-Villas D. and Girona-García A. Soil humus changes with
elevation in Scots pine stands of the Moncayo Massif (NE Spain)


44. Kolb E. and Kohlpaintner M. Tangel humus forms − genesis and co-
evolution with vegetation


45. Kõlli R. and Rannik K. Matching Estonian humus cover types' (pro humus forms') and soils' classifications

46. Tatti D., Fatton V., Sartori L., Gobat J.M., Le Bayon R.C. What does
'lignoform' really mean?


47. Terrigeol A., Indorf M.F., Jouhanique T., Tanguy F., Hoareau D.,
Rahimian V., Agésilas-Lequeux K., Baues R., Noualhguet M., Cheraiet A., Miedziejewski A., Bazot S., Lata J.C., Mathieu J., Hannot C., Dreuillaux J.M., Zanella A. Study of Soil–Vegetation Relationships on the Butte Montceau in Fontainebleau, France


48. Vacca A., Serra G., Scalenghe R. Vegetation, soils, and humus forms of Sardinian holm oak forests and approximated cross-harmoniza- tion of vegetation types, WRB


49. Waez-Mousavi S.M. Humus systems in the Caspian Hyrcanian temperate forests


50. Wright V.P. An early Carboniferous humus from South Wales pre- served by marine hydromorphic entombment


51. Zaiets O. and Poch R.M. Use of micromorphology for humus characterisation and classification in some Mediterranean calcar- eous soils


52. Zanella A. Have you never seen an infrared humus/human profile?


53. Concheri G., Tiozzo S., Stevanato P., Squartini A. The nutrient- primed incremented substrate degradation proinciple. A novel method and an automated tool to assess and correct agricultural soil deficiences to optimize its fertility and crop productivity


54. Ferrarini A., Bini C., Amaducci S. Soil and ecosystem services: Current knowledge and evidences from Italian case studies


55. Fusaro S., Squartini A., Paoletti M.G. Functional biodiversity, en- vironmental sustainability and crop nutritional properties: A case study of horticultural crops in north-eastern Italy


56. Gobbi V., Nicoletto C., Zanin G., Sambo P. Specific humus systems from mushrooms culture


57. Gomiero T. Food quality assessment in organic vs. conventional agricultural produce: Findings and issues


58. Gomiero T. Large-scale biofuels production: a possible threat to soil conservation and environmental services


59. Kõlli R. Influence of land use change on fabric of humus cover (pro humus form)


60. Menta C., Conti F.D., Pinto S. Microarthropods biodiversity in natural, seminatural and cultivated soils - QBS-ar approach


61. Pergola M., Persiani A., Palese A.M., Di Meo V., Pastore V., D'Adamo C., Celano G. Composting: the way for a sustainable agriculture


62. Gavinelli F., Barcaro T., Csuzdi C., Blakemore R.J., Fernandez Marchan D., De Sosa I., et al. Importance of large, deep-burrowing and anecic earthworms in forested and cultivated areas (vineyards) of northeastern Italy


63. Pelosi C. and Römbke J. Enchytraeids – Land use and management


64. Cillis D., Pezzuolo A., Marinello F., Sartori L. Field-scale electrical resistivity profiling mapping for delineating soil condition in a nitrate vulnerable area


65. Polverigiani S., Franzina M., Neri D. Effect of soil condition on
apple root development and plant resilience in intensive orchards


66. Saccon P. Water for agriculture, irrigation management


67. Squartini A. Cheap and portable lab-free respiration assay


68. Stellin F., Gavinelli F., Stevanato P., Concheri G., Squartini A.,
Paoletti M.G. Effects of different concentrations of glyphosate (Roundup 360®) on earthworms (Octodrilus complanatus, Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea caliginosa) in vineyards in the North-East of Italy.
Reading the titles of all the Humusica articles it is easy to image the new soil that we lay behind us:
Ahhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh !!!!!
Humus Manual Up
PART THREE: HISTIC HUMUS SYSTEMS AND FORMS
Humipedon classification: tools and actions for field investigations

9. HISTIC HUMUS SYSTEMS AND FORMS
9.1. Specific terms and diagnostic horizons
9.2. Definition of diagnostic horizons
9.2.1. Organic horizons (H horizons)
9.2.2. Organo-mineral horizons (A horizons)


10. KEY of CLASSIFICATION of HUMUS SYSTEMS and FORMS
10.1. General character and distribution of Histic humus systems
10.2. Step by step key of classification of Histic HUMUS FORMS
10.3. Key of classification of histic HUMUS FORMS
10.3.1. Anmoor, 3 humus forms (Eu, Limi, Sapri)
10.3.2. Saprimoor, 3 humus forms (Limi, Eu, Oligo)
10.3.3. Amphimoor, 3 humus forms (Humi, Eu, Fibri)
10.3.4. Mesimoor, 4 humus forms (Sapri, Humi, Eu, Fibri)
10.3.5. Fibrimoor, 3 humus forms (Sapri, Humi, Eu)


11. EPIHISTO INTERGRADES
11.1. Specific terms and diagnostic horizons
11.2. Names of Epihisto intergrades
11.3. Dynamic specificities
11.4. Simplified table of classification of Histic humus systems, forms and Epihisto intergrades


12. DYNAMICS
12.1. Bioactivity in Bogs and rain-fed floating fens
12.2. Springs and brook valleys
PART FOUR: PARA HUMUS SYSTEMS AND FORMS
Humipedon classification: tools and actions for field investigations

13. PARA HUMUS SYSTEMS
13.1. Presentation
13.2. Definition of diagnostic horizons

13.3. KEYS FOR HUMUS SYSTEMS and FORMS
13.3.1. Crusto (made by dominant Cyanobacteria, Lichens, Algae)
13.3.2. Bryo (made by dominant Mosses)
13.3.3. Rhizo (made by dominant roots)
13.3.4. Ligno (made by dominant wood feeding animals and fungi)
13.3.5. Anaero (river-, lake-, marsh- and sea-beds)
13.3.6. Archaeo (extremophile habitats without plants: highly saline, acidic, alkaline, hot springs..)
PART FIVE: ANTHROPOGENIC HUMUS SYSTEMS AND FORMS
Humipedon classification: tools and actions for field investigations

14. ANTHROPOGENIC SOILS
14.1. Introduction
14.2. Essential WRB meaning about anthropogenic soils
14.3. Essential USDA meaning about anthropogenic soil
14.4. Essential WRB and USDA common meaning about anthropogenic soils and proposal of integration of this knowledge in our humus manual
14.5. Agro and Techno humus Systems

15. AGRO humus Systems
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Specific terms
15.3. Agro diagnostic horizons
15.4. Classification of Agro humus systems and forms

16. TECHNO humus Systems
16.1. Compost
16.2. Soil dynamic
PART SIX: PORTABLE FIELD KEY
Simplified tools for field investigations:

- Dicothomic key of classification for Terrestrial, Histic systems and forms and Hydro and Epihisto intergrades (Claire le Bayon)
- Apple application for Terrestrial humus systems and forms (G. Zanella)

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Chapter 2
E-Democracy: 3) Do you like the "Infinito?"
E-Democracy: 1) Stop the climate from warming; 2).....
E-Democracy: 2) Ban nuclear weapon from our planet; 3).....
HUMUSICA 1
Available
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HUMUSICA 2
Available
CLICK HERE



HUMUSICA 3

Available in May 2018
68 Articles in
Applied Soil Ecology
Special issues
E-Democracy: 3) Do you like the "Infinito?"
E-Democracy: 1) Stop the climate from warming; 2).....
E-Democracy: 2) Ban nuclear weapon from our planet; 3).....
E-Democracy: 3) Do you like the "Infinito?"
E-Democracy: 1) Stop the climate from warming; 2).....
E-Democracy: 2) Ban nuclear weapon from our planet; 3).....
E-Democracy: 3) Do you like the "Infinito?"
E-Democracy: 1) Stop the climate from warming; 2).....
E-Democracy: 2) Ban nuclear weapon from our planet; 3).....
E-Democracy: 3) Do you like the "Infinito?"
E-Democracy: 1) Stop the climate from warming; 2).....
E-Democracy: 2) Ban nuclear weapon from our planet; 3).....
E-Democracy: 3) Do you like the "Infinito?"
E-Democracy: 1) Stop the climate from warming; 2).....
E-Democracy: 2) Ban nuclear weapon from our planet; 3).....
Humus Manual December 2017
Humus Manual 2016