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Humus
First Commission Classification, Trento 2003
Commission Classification in Wien (Austria), 2004
Commission Classification, Cagliari (Italy) 2007

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an iPhone and iPad app
for classifying forest humipedons
TerrHum was born from the unofficial collaboration of an IT engineer (Zanella G.) and a soil ecology specialist (Zanella A.). The latter has also activated for more than 10 years the Humus Group (a hundred experts of soil, organic matter, pedofauna, researchers and managers) and has been vice-chairman of the IUSS Commission on Soil Classification from 2014 to 2018. The app was supervised and approved by the IT Service and the TESAF department of the University of Padua (Italy).

TerrHum allows the main content of the Humusica 1 Special Issue and field guide (Zanella and Ascher- Jenull 2018) to be organised and stored on a cell phone. The field guide is the fruit of more than 10 years of field work, discussions and syntheses carried out by the Humus Group for improving a fundamental French key of humus form classification (Jabiol et al. 1994). Many historical works were reconsidered and integrated into the new key (citing only some of the most noteworthy studies: Kubiëna, 1953; Hartmann and Marcuzzi, 1970; Klinka and Green, 1981; Bernier and Ponge, 1994; Broll et al., 2006; Graefe, 2007).

The name TerrHum is an abbreviation of the words Terrestrial (not hydromorphic, not submerged) and Humipedon (organic and organic-mineral humus horizons). With this application it is possible to classify all non-submerged forest topsoils of our planet and to understand their functioning (Zanella et al. 2018a). The app is built on the indications about humus diagnostic horizons, forms and systems reported and illustrated in many articles published by the Humus Group (Zanella et al. 2018b, 2018c, 2018d).

Freely available in the App Store, TerrHum makes use of many figures that are stored in the cloud and downloaded in the iPhone the first time the user recalls them. Once all figures (about 150) have been opened, the iPhone does not need to be connected to the Internet to run the application, allowing it also to be further used in the absence of a network connection.



-------------------------------------------------- REFERENCES ---------------------


Bernier, N., Ponge, J.F., 1994. Humus form dynamics during the sylvogenetic cycle in a mountain spruce forest. Soil Biol. Biochem. 26, 183–220. doi:10.1016/0038-0717(94)90161-9


Broll, G., Brauckmann, H.J., Overesch, M., Junge, B., Erber, C., Milbert, G., Baize, D., Nachtergaele, F., 2006. Topsoil characterization - Recommendations for revision and expansion of the FAO-Draft (1998) with emphasis on humus forms and biological features. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 169, 453–461. doi:10.1002/jpln.200521961


Graefe, U., 2007. Gibt es in Deutschland die Humusform Amphi? Mitteilungen der Dtsch. Bodenkundlichen Gesellschaft 110, 459–460.


Hartmann, F., Marcuzzi, G., 1970. Diagnosi degli humus forestali su basi biomorfologiche. CEDAM, Padova.


Jabiol, B., Brêthes, A., Brun, J.-J., Ponge, J.F., Toutain, F., 1994. Une clasification morphologique et fonctionnelle des formes d'humus. Proposition du Référentiel Pédologique 1992. Rev. For. Fr. XLVI, 152–156.


Klinka, K., Green, R.N., Trowbridge R.L., L.E., L., 1981. Taxonomic classification of humus forms in ecosystems of British Columbia. First approximation., Report 8. ed, Land and Management. Ministry of Forests, Province of British Columbia.


Kubiëna, W.L., 1953. The Soils of Europe. Illustrated Diagnosis and Sistematics. Allen & Unwin, Madrid, London.


Zanella, A., Ascher-Jenull, J., 2018. Editorial. Appl. Soil Ecol. 122, 1–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2017.11.029

Zanella, A., Berg, B., Ponge, J.-F., Kemmers, R.H., 2018a. Humusica 1, article 2: Essential bases - Functional considerations. Appl. Soil Ecol. 122, 22–41. doi:10.1016/j.apsoil.2017.07.010

Zanella, A., Ponge, J.-F., Jabiol, B., Sartori, G., Kolb, E., Gobat, J.-M., Le Bayon, R.-C., Aubert, M., De Waal, R., Van Delft, B., Vacca, A., Serra, G., Chersich, S., Andreetta, A., Cools, N., Englisch, M., Hager, H., Katzensteiner, K., Brêthes, A., De Nicola, C., Testi, A., Bernier, N., Graefe, U., Juilleret, J., Banas, D., Garlato, A., Obber, S., Galvan, P., Zampedri, R., Frizzera, L., Tomasi, M., Menardi, R., Fontanella, F., Filoso, C., Dibona, R., Bolzonella, C., Pizzeghello, D., Carletti, P., Langohr, R., Cattaneo, D., Nardi, S., Nicolini, G., Viola, F., 2018b. Humusica 1, article 4: Terrestrial humus systems and forms - Specific terms and diagnostic horizons. Appl. Soil Ecol. 122, 56–74. doi:10.1016/j.apsoil.2017.07.005

Zanella, A., Ponge, J.-F., Jabiol, B., Sartori, G., Kolb, E., Le Bayon, R.-C., Gobat, J.-M., Aubert, M., De Waal, R., Van Delft, B., Vacca, A., Serra, G., Chersich, S., Andreettal, A., Kõlli, R., Brun, J.-J., Cools, N., Englisch, M., Hager, H., Katzensteiner, K., Brêthes, A., De Nicolas, C., Testi, A., Bernier, N., Graefe, U., Wolf, U., Juilleret, J., Garlato, A., Obber, S., Galvan, P., Zampedri, R., Frizzera, L., Tomasi, M., Banas, D., Bureau, F., Tatti, D., Salmon, S., Menardi, R., Fontanella, F., Carraro, V., Pizzeghello, D., Concheri, G., Squartini, A., Cattaneo, D., Scattolin, L., Nardi, S., Nicolini, G., Viola, F., 2018c. Humusica 1, article 5: Terrestrial humus systems and forms - Keys of classification of humus systems and forms. Appl. Soil Ecol. 122, 75–86. doi:10.1016/j.apsoil.2017.06.012

Zanella, A., Ponge, J.-F., Briones, M.J.I., 2018d. Humusica 1, article 8: Terrestrial humus systems and forms - Biological activity and soil aggregates, space-time dynamics. Appl. Soil Ecol. 122, 103–137. doi:10.1016/j.apsoil.2017.07.020

Zanella, A., Ponge, J.-F., Matteodo, M., 2018e. Humusica 1, article 7: Terrestrial humus systems and forms - Field practice and sampling problems. Appl. Soil Ecol. 122, 92–102. doi:10.1016/j.apsoil.2017.05.028

Zanella, A., Ponge, J.-F., Briones, M.J.I., 2018f. Humusica 1, article 8: Terrestrial humus systems and forms - Biological activity and soil aggregates, space-time dynamics. Appl. Soil Ecol. 122, 103–137. doi:10.1016/j.apsoil.2017.07.020

European Humus Group, San Vito di Cadore (Dolimiti, Italy) 2005
HOW TerrHum WORKS

Touch text or pictures or answers or Next

For help (example you want to see how zoOH or vOL horizon are) touch the keys at the bottom of the screen (HOR, O/AT, SYFO, HELP), they corresonds to the voices of he first screen of the app.

Click on pictures to zoom and spread fingers. Click a time more for legend (better to zoom first and legend in a second time, so you can deplace the picture behind the legend).
Click a timemore for coming back to a standard dimension and proceed with other photos-examples sweeping. The first four pictures of the key (Mull, No Mull, Amphi or Tangel and Moder or Mor) cannot be magnified (the fact to touch them opens "Next" key). But you can find them in HOR or in SYFO, eventually.

WRB or USDA correspondence for soil organic horizons: OL = Oi; OF = Oe; OH = Oa.

In the field by the naked eye, an organic horizon seems made of one organic material. With elemental analyser, the content in organica carbon is > 20%.





Let us consider a user faced with a soil profile to be classified. A cubic volume of 50×50×50 cm is generally sufficient for studying humus systems and forms in a forest environment, while a larger hole or many well-distributed small holes are necessary for surveying a heterogeneous area (Zanella et al. 2018e; Zanella et al. 2018f).
As a humus form is made of superposed humus horizons, the app asks the user to indicate one by one which types of humus horizons are present in the observed profile. The user is asked to answer a series of YES/NO questions and can open examples of diagnostic horizons and tables (Figures 1 to 5).
PDF VERSION OF TerrHum KEY = TERRESTRIAL Humus Systems and Forms
SADS
Main Groups, Intergrades, Humus Systems, Humus forms in HUMUSICA 2018 classification.
Terrestrial and Hydro intergrades = Humusica 1 Applied Soil Ecology Special Issue, Vol. 122 Part 1;
Histic, Epihisto intergrades, Aqueous and Para = Humusica 2 Appliesed Soil Ecology Special Issue, Vol. 122 Part 2;
Applications, examples, tools in Humusica 3 Applied Soil Ecology Special Issues, Vol. 123.
https://www.journals.elsevier.com/applied-soil-ecology/special-issues
TerrHum is free downloadable in the App Store.
Simply open App Store with your iPhone or iPad and search for TerrHum (Education), open it clicking on the little cloud.